Illustration Pierre Bouillé
Depending on whether the property is for sale, refurbishment or lease, the rules for safety standards are different. In some cases, work will be essential, in others not. We take stock.
When performing work in a dwelling, it must be brought up to safety standards. But to rent it, it is enough to check that it does not present a danger for the tenant (the setting to the standards is not obligatory).Housing for sale
When selling a property, some diagnostics (up to nine) are imperatively attached to the bill of sale.
The establishment of diagnostics has an informative value: the purchaser must be able to get an idea of what he buys (including the energy consumption of housing through the energy performance diagnosis) and the work he will be forced to perform . The diagnoses make it possible to estimate the cost of the possible works.
But if some facilities are no longer up to standard, the seller is not necessarily obliged to perform work, except in case of danger to the occupant. For example, when a lead exposure is found or the asbestos dust level is above the legal threshold, you will be required to make the repairs before the sale. It is the same for the installation of gas which, if it is considered dangerous, can be stopped until compliance.Housing to renovate
When renovating, it is necessary to take advantage of it to bring the housing up to the standards, in particular in the matter of electricity (NF C15-100). This standard imposes a number of circuits per piece and protection of these. For example, in the living room, you need one every 4 m2 and at least 5 m2. It is also necessary:
- at least one differential device suitable for grounding conditions;
- a general device of cut and protection (AGCP) as a branch circuit breaker;
- differential devices on the circuits supplying the washing machine and hobs;
- the respect of specific rules in the bathrooms, where the danger of electrocution is the strongest.
Three diagnoses must be provided during a rental:
- the diagnosis of energy performance (DPE), which allows the tenant to know the energy consumption to predict;
- the diagnosis of exposure to lead for dwellings built before 1948: it is a question of verifying that there is no danger of exposure to this heavy metal, because of degraded paints for example (if the legal thresholds of exposure are not reached the owner is not obliged to carry out work, in the opposite case, he must remove the risk, failing which, his criminal responsibility could be engaged);
- the diagnosis of the state of natural and technological risks.
In addition to these diagnoses, certain rules are intended to protect the tenant's safety and health, or the tenant may put the owner in default to carry out work, particularly on the structure, which must be in good condition. It is imperative that the dwelling presents no danger in terms of gas and electricity and that the installations are in good working order.
To know: The only constraint for the electrical installation of a rented house is that it is not dangerous, even if it does not meet current standards. The principle is that it must comply with the regulations in force at the time of construction of housing.